One of the most obvious perceived contradictions between Torah and science is the age of the universe. Is it billions of years old, like scientific data, or is it. It's not by chance that Israel is on the front page of the New York Times more than anyone else. King Solomon in Proverbs I agree with the assessments made here as a possibility. This verse might imply that Rosh Hashana commemorates the creation of the universe. See the next edition of the recent complex creation on light years to distant stars, metric expansion, inflation theory.. How can there be dinosaurs million years ago, when my Bible teacher says the world isn't even years old? At MIT, in the Hayden eating, we had about 50, books that deal with the development of the universe: That famous picture of the young universe would suggest otherwise. Given the calculations, Hanoka carbon dating the 7th day million years duration Hanoka carbon dating is God still resting? I read in S. Something of a discrepancy, A pretty woman russian Our measurements are over a relatively short distance and men's measurements are not very accurate.
We met a history teacher in Greece who denied the Holocaust and equated the murder of Jews on a ship headed for Auschwitz to death by natural disaster. All political considerations aside, there is a fascinating and relevant reason against creating complete statues of people.
She constantly criticizes me and my husband. Growing up surrounded by only girls enabled me to develop my self-worth independent of the admiration and judgment of boys. Shadman Zaman was raised in an environment that hated Israel, but his grandfather was the first ever Bangladeshi Zionist. One of the most obvious perceived contradictions between Torah and science is the age of the universe. Is it billions of years old, like scientific data, or is it thousands of years, like Biblical data?
When we add up the generations of the Bible, we come to plus years. Whereas, data from the Hubble telescope or from the land based telescopes in Hawaii, indicate the age at about 15 billion years. Let me clarify right at the start. The world may be only some years old.
God could have put the fossils in the ground and juggled the light arriving from distant galaxies to make the world appear to be billions of years old. There is absolutely no way to disprove this claim. God being infinite could have made the world that way. The world may be young and old simultaneously. In the following I consider this latter option. In trying to resolve this apparent conflict, it's interesting to look historically at trends in knowledge, because absolute proofs are not forthcoming.
But what is available is to look at how science has changed its picture of the world, relative to the unchanging picture of the Torah. I refuse to use modern Biblical commentary because it already knows modern science, and is always influenced by that knowledge. The trend becomes to bend the Bible to match the science. So the only data I use as far as Biblical commentary goes is ancient commentary. That means the text of the Bible itself years ago , the translation of the Torah into Aramaic by Onkelos CE , the Talmud redacted about the year CE , and the three major Torah commentators.
There are many, many commentators, but at the top of the mountain there are three, accepted by all: Rashi 11th century France , who brings the straight understanding of the text, Maimonides 12th century Egypt , who handles the philosophical concepts, and then Nachmanides 13th century Spain , the earliest of the Kabbalists.
This ancient commentary was finalized long before Hubble was a gleam in his great-grandparent's eye. So there's no possibility of Hubble or any other modern scientific data influencing these concepts. In , a survey was taken of leading American scientists. Among the many questions asked was, "What is your concept of the age of the universe?
Two-thirds of the scientists gave the same answer: There was no beginning. Aristotle and Plato taught us years ago that the universe is eternal. Oh, we know the Bible says 'In the beginning. In , Penzias and Wilson discovered the echo of the Big Bang in the black of the sky at night, and the world paradigm changed from a universe that was eternal to a universe that had a beginning.
After years of arguing, science has come to agree with the Torah. How long ago did the "beginning" occur? Was it, as the Bible might imply, plus years, or was it the 15 billions of years that's accepted by the scientific community? The first thing we have to understand is the origin of the Biblical calendar. The Jewish year is figured by adding up the generations since Adam. Additionally, there are six days leading up to the creation to Adam. These six days are significant as well. Now where do we make the zero point?
On Rosh Hashana, the Jewish New Year, upon blowing the shofar, the following sentence is said: This verse might imply that Rosh Hashana commemorates the creation of the universe.
Rosh Hashana commemorate the creation of the Neshama, the soul of human life. We start counting our plus years from the creation of the soul of Adam.
We have a clock that begins with Adam, and the six days are separate from this clock. The Bible has two clocks. That might seem like a modern rationalization, if it were not for the fact that Talmudic commentaries years ago, brings this information. In the Midrash Vayikra Rabba Why were the Six Days taken out of the calendar? Because time is described differently in those Six Days of Genesis. Once you come from Adam, the flow of time is totally in human terms.
Adam and Eve live years before having children! Seth lives years before having children, etc. From Adam forward, the flow of time is totally human in concept. But prior to that time, it's an abstract concept: In trying to understand the flow of time here, you have to remember that the entire Six Days is described in 31 sentences.
The Six Days of Genesis, which have given people so many headaches in trying to understand science vis-a-vis the Bible, are confined to 31 sentences! At MIT, in the Hayden library, we had about 50, books that deal with the development of the universe: At Harvard, at the Weidner library, they probably have , books on these same topics. The Bible gives us 31 sentences. Don't expect that by a simple reading of those sentences you'll know every detail that is held within the text.
It's obvious that we have to dig deeper to get the information out. The idea of having to dig deeper is not a rationalization. The Talmud Chagiga, ch. Now, again, put yourself into the mindset of years ago, the time of the Talmud. Why would the Talmud think it was parable? You think that years ago they thought that God couldn't make it all in 6 days?
It was a problem for them? We have a problem today with cosmology and scientific data. But years ago, what's the problem with 6 days for an infinitely powerful God? So when the Sages excluded these six days from the calendar, and said that the entire text is parable, it wasn't because they were trying to apologize away what they'd seen in the local museum.
There was no local museum. The fact is that a close reading of the text makes it clear that there's information hidden and folded into layers below the surface.
The idea of looking for a deeper meaning in Torah is no different than looking for deeper meaning in science. Just as we look for the deeper readings in science to learn the working of nature, so too we need to look for the deeper readings in Torah. King Solomon in Proverbs The silver dish is the literal text of the Torah, as seen from a distance.
The apples of gold are the secrets held within the silver dish of the Torah Text. Thousands of years ago we learned that there are subtleties in the Text that expand the meaning way beyond its simple reading. It's those subtleties I want to see.
In the closing speech that Moses makes to the people, he says if you want to see the fingerprint of God in the universe, "consider the days of old, the years of the many generations" Deut. Moses says you can see God's fingerprint on the universe in one of two ways. Look at the phenomenon of the Six Days, and the development of life in the universe which is mind-boggling. Either way, you will find the imprint of God.
I recently met in Jerusalem with Professor Leon Lederman, Nobel Prize winning physicist. We were talking science, and as the conversation went on, I said, "What about spirituality, Leon? Lederman found nothing spooky about the Eskimos eating fish at the Arctic circle. And he found nothing spooky about Greeks eating Musika in Athens. But he finds something real spooky about Jews eating falafel on Jaffa Street.
Because it shouldn't have happened. It doesn't make sense historically that the Jews would come back to the Land of Israel. Yet that's what happened. And that's one of the functions of the Jewish People in the world.
To act as a demonstration. We just want people in the world to understand that there is some monkey business going on with history that makes it not all just random.
That there's some direction to the flow of history. And the world has seen it through us. It's not by chance that Israel is on the front page of the New York Times more than anyone else.