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The term Hispanic Spanish: It commonly applies to countries once owned by the Spanish Empire in the Americas see Spanish colonization of the Americas and Asia, particularly the countries of Hispanic America and the Philippines. It could be argued that the term should apply to all Spanish-speaking cultures or countries, as the historical roots of the word specifically pertain to the Iberian region.
It is difficult to label a nation or culture with one term, such as Hispanic , as the ethnicities, customs, traditions, and art forms music, literature, dress, culture, cuisine, and others vary greatly by country and region.
The Spanish language and Spanish culture are the main distinctions. Hispanic originally referred to the people of ancient Roman Hispania , which roughly comprised the Iberian Peninsula , including the contemporary states of Spain , Portugal , Andorra , and the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. The words Spain , Spanish , and Spaniard are of the same etymology as Hispanus , ultimately. Hispanus was the Latin name given to a person from Hispania during Roman rule.
In English, the term Hispano-Roman is sometimes used. A number of these men, such as Trajan, Hadrian and others, were in fact descended from Roman colonial families. Hispania was the Roman name for the whole territory of the Iberian Peninsula. Initially, this territory was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior.
C, Hispania Ulterior was divided into two new provinces, Hispania Baetica and Hispania Lusitania , while Hispania Citerior was renamed Hispania Tarraconensis. This division of Hispania explains the usage of the singular and plural forms Spain, and The Spains used to refer to the peninsula and its kingdoms in the Middle Ages.
Before the marriage of Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon in , the four Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula—the Kingdom of Portugal , the Crown of Aragon , the Crown of Castile , and the Kingdom of Navarre —were collectively called The Spains. In the Council of Constance , the four kingdoms shared one vote. The word Lusitanian , relates to Lusitania or Portugal, also in reference to the Lusitanians , possibly one of the first Indo-European tribes to settle in Europe.
From this tribe's name had derived the name of the Roman province of Lusitania , and Lusitania remains the name of Portugal in Latin. The terms Spain and the Spains were not interchangeable. With the Decretos de Nueva Planta , Philip V started to organize the fusion of his kingdoms that until then were ruled as distinct and independent, but this unification process lacked a formal and juridic proclamation.
Although colloquially and literally the expression "King of Spain" or "King of the Spains" was already widespread,  it did not refer to a unified nation-state. The expansion of the Spanish Empire between and brought thousands of Spanish migrants to the conquered lands, who established settlements, mainly in the Americas, but also in other distant parts of the world as in the Philippines, the lone Spanish territory in Asia , producing a number of multiracial populations.
Today, the term Hispanic is typically applied to the varied populations of these places, including those with Spanish ancestry. The Filipinos however can be considered Hispanics because of the culture and language that Spanish left behind. Along with English and Tagalog, Spanish used to be one of the official languages in the Philippines before being removed in by the Cory Aquino government.
The Latin gentile adjectives that belong to Hispania are Hispanus, Hispanicus, and Hispanienses. A Hispanus is someone who is a native of Hispania with no foreign parents, while children born in Hispania of Latin Roman parents were Hispaniensis. Hispaniensis means 'connected in some way to Hispania', as in "Exercitus Hispaniensis" 'the Spanish army' or "mercatores Hispanienses" 'Spanish merchants'. Hispanicus implies 'of' or 'belonging to' Hispania or the Hispanus or of their fashion as in "glaudius Hispanicus".
The term Hispanic signifies the cultural resonance, among other elements and characteristics, of the descendants of the people who inhabited ancient Hispania Iberian Peninsula. It has been used throughout history for many purposes, including drawing a contrast to the Moors and differentiating explorers and settlers.
Technically speaking, persons from Portugal or of Portuguese extraction are referred to as Lusitanians. In Portugal, Hispanic refers to something related to ancient Hispania, Spain or the Spanish language and culture, Portugal. The Royal Spanish Academy Spanish: Note that both terms include Portugal as part of "Hispania" as Hispania is the old Roman name given to the entire Iberian peninsula and their peoples, including the Lusitanians.
The common modern term to identify Portuguese and Spanish cultures under a single nomenclature is "Iberian", and the one to refer to cultures derived from both countries in the Americas is "Iberian-American". In Spanish, the term "hispano" as in "hispanoamericano", refers to the people of Spanish origin who live in the Americas; it also refers to a relationship to Hispania or to the Spanish language. There are people in Hispanic America that are not of Spanish origin, as the original people of these areas are Amerindians.
Today, organizations in the United States use the term as a broad catchall to refer to persons with a historical and cultural relationship with Spain, regardless of race and ethnicity. Census Bureau defines the ethnonym Hispanic or Latino to refer to "a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race"  and states that Hispanics or Latinos can be of any race, any ancestry, any ethnicity. Latino can refer to males or females, while Latina refers to only females.
Because of the technical distinctions involved in defining "race" vs. Currently, the United States Census Bureau defines six race categories: The inhabitants of Easter Island are Pacific Islanders and since the island belongs to Chile they are theoretically Hispanic or Latinos. Therefore, a person of Hispanic descent is typically defined using both race and ethnicity as an identifier—i.
A notice by the U. Office of Management and Budget defined Hispanic or Latino persons as being "persons who trace their origin or descent to Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Central and South America, and other Spanish cultures. The United States Census uses the ethnonym Hispanic or Latino to refer to "a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race. People who identify their origin as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be of any race.
Department of Transportation defines Hispanic as, "persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central or South American, or other Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin, regardless of race. The Hispanic Society of America is dedicated to the study of the arts and cultures of Spain , Portugal , and Latin America. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission encourages any individual who believes that he or she is Hispanic to self-identify as Hispanic.
As a result, any individual who traces his or her origins to part of the Spanish Empire or Portuguese Empire may self-identify as Hispanic, because an employer may not override an individual's self-identification. The Census was the first time that a "Hispanic" identifier was used and data collected with the question. The definition of "Hispanic" has been modified in each successive census.
In a recent study, most Spanish-speakers of Spanish or Hispanic American descent do not prefer the term "Hispanic" or "Latino" when it comes to describing their identity. Instead, they prefer to be identified by their country of origin. Hispanicization is the process by which a place or a person absorbs characteristics of Hispanic society and culture. Hispanization of a person might be illustrated by speaking Spanish, making and eating Hispanic American food, listening to Spanish language music or participating in Hispanic festivals and holidays - Hispanization of those outside the Hispanic community as opposed to assimilation of Hispanics into theirs.
One reason that some people believe the assimilation of Hispanics in the U. For example, California , Texas , Colorado , New Mexico , Arizona , Nevada , Florida and Puerto Rico have been home to Spanish-speaking peoples since the 16th century, long before the U.
But it should be noted that the language of the Native Americans existed before this, until the invasion and forced assimilation by the Spanish. These and other Spanish-speaking territories were part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain , and later Mexico with the exception of Florida and Puerto Rico , before these regions joined or were taken over by the United States in Some cities in the U.
For example, San Miguel de Gualdape, Pensacola and St. Augustine, Florida were founded in , and respectively. Santa Fe, New Mexico was founded in , and Albuquerque was established in El Paso was founded in , San Antonio in , Laredo, Texas in , San Diego in , San Francisco in , San Jose, California in , New Iberia, Louisiana in , and Los Angeles in Therefore, in many parts of the U. For this reason, many generations have largely maintained their cultural traditions and Spanish language well before the United States was created.
However, Spanish-speaking persons in many Hispanic areas in the U. Language retention is a common index to assimilation; according to the census, about 75 percent of all Hispanics spoke Spanish in the home. Spanish language retention rates vary geographically; parts of Texas and New Mexico have language retention rates over 90 percent, whereas in parts of Colorado and California, retention rates are lower than 30 percent.
The degree of retention of Spanish as the native language is based on recent arrival from countries where Spanish is spoken. As is true of other immigrants, those who were born in other countries still speak their native language.
Later generations are increasingly less likely to speak the language spoken in the country of their ancestors, as is true of other immigrant groups. Today, Spanish is among the most commonly spoken first languages of the world. During the period of the Spanish Empire from and , many people migrated from Spain to the conquered lands. The Spaniards brought with them the Castilian language and culture, and in this process that lasted several centuries , created a global empire with a diverse population.
Culturally, Spaniards those living in Spain are typically European, but they also have small traces of many peoples from the rest of Europe, such as for example, old Germania, Scandinavia, France, the Mediterranean, the Near East and northern Africa.
As is true of many immigrant families, the immigrants often speak Spanish and some English, while their children are fluent English speakers because they were born and educated in the U. Some retain their Spanish language as is true of other immigrant families.
The recent influx of large numbers of immigrants from Spanish-speaking countries into the U. Migration from Hispanic countries has increased the Spanish-speaking population in the United States. Of those who speak Spanish in the United States, three quarters speak English well or very well. Census Bureau considers Hispanic to mean a person of Hispanic American descent including persons of Cuban, Mexican, or Puerto Rican origin and of Spanish descent living in the U.
The Miguel de Cervantes Prize is awarded to Hispanic writers, whereas the Latin Grammy Award recognizes Hispanic and Portuguese musicians, and the Platino Awards as given to outstanding Hispanic films. Folk and popular dance and music also varies greatly among Hispanics. For instance, the music from Spain is a lot different from the Hispanic American , although there is a high grade of exchange between both continents. In addition, due to the high national development of the diverse nationalities and regions of Spain , there is a lot of music in the different languages of the Peninsula Catalan , Galician and Basque , mainly.
Flamenco is also a very popular music style in Spain, especially in Andalusia. Spanish ballads "romances" can be traced in Argentina as "milongas", same structure but different scenarios. On the other side of the ocean, Hispanic America is also home to a wide variety of music, even though "Latin" music is often erroneously thought of, as a single genre. Hispanic Caribbean music tends to favor complex polyrhythms of African origin.
Spanish-language literature and folklore is very rich and is influenced by a variety of countries. There are thousands of writers from many places, and dating from the Middle Ages to the present. In the majority of the Hispanic countries, association football is the most popular sport. The men's national teams of Argentine, Uruguay and Spain have won the FIFA World Cup a total five times.